Why did Chris Johns kill the Egypt story?

Johns Hedges Egypt story killed FI

(Please scroll down to hear these two interviews.)

Something doesn’t add up here….

According to a recent news report, the U.S. Department of Justice is investigating the National Geographic Society for violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. In that report, there’s a puzzling anecdote about Chris Johns, Editor-in-Chief of National Geographic magazine, who back in 2005 commissioned, then later killed a feature article about Egypt which shed light on the brutal reign of Egypt’s then-President Hosni Mubarak. The story — (presciently) reported and written six years before the democratic uprisings of the Arab Spring — was the work of Chris Hedges, a former Mideast bureau chief for The New York Times and a winner of the Pulitzer Prize.

Why did Chris Johns kill Chris Hedges’ Egypt story? In that news report, the editor and the journalist offer contradictory explanations. According to Chris Hedges, his story was killed because National Geographic Television (NGT) had reviewed the manuscript, and concluded that publishing it would infuriate President Mubarak and his top lieutenants, who would deny NGT access to ancient archaeological sites in Egypt. Among those lieutenants: Zahi Hawass, who was then Egypt’s Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, and a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence.

Editor Chris Johns says killing the story was his decision, and his alone, and not the result of any pressure applied by National Geographic Television, or by Egyptian officials, including Zahi Hawass.

To help resolve these contradictions, and to discover exactly what happened and why, I conducted two separate interviews — one with Chris Hedges, the other with Chris Johns.

Chris Hedges (interviewed on 29 October 2013):

Chris Johns (interviewed on 6 November 2013):

{UPDATE: This audio interview was removed at the request of Terry Adamson,
NGS Executive Vice President & Chief Legal Officer.}

It’s worth noting that Chris Johns did NOT say: Chris Hedges’ reporting was poor. Or: Reza’s photographs were uninspiring. Or: The story failed to break any new ground. Or: I cannot fully articulate what troubled me about the story, and I still can’t quite find the words, so I followed my gut instincts and killed the story. Or: I don’t remember. 

No. What Chris Johns says is: “It’s none of your business.”

In other words: I have a reason I killed this story, but I’m not going to tell you what it is.

Consider that shove-off — and then connect the dots that Chris Hedges lays out above — and you’ll begin to appreciate what ails National Geographic magazine, and what is undermining the credibility of the 125-year-old National Geographic Society.

In case you’re wondering if this episode is an outlier, or an anomaly, please remember that kowtowing to dictators is nothing new in the Chris Johns era. For example, back in 2007, Chris commissioned a story about another powerful regime that violently crushes the democratic aspirations of its own people. But when The (Editor’s) Decisive Moment arrived — to publish or not to publish — Chris Johns killed that story too. For details, please see:

Mystery of Missing Story China Ha Jin

{ The link in the above clip will take you
to the main story: Adventures in Global Media. }

China ChrisandTerry dinner cartoon2

Chris Johns & Terry Adamson celebrate NGM’s new publishing partnership in the People’s Republic of China. (2007)

See also: The Anaconda in The Chandelier

NGS contract with Zahi Hawass is ruled illegal

Zahi Hawass
is a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Emeritus
,

and the former head of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. Egyptian court ruling antiquities

{ Read the whole thing here. }

Related notes (via a variety of sources):

  • This ruling is not a conviction of Zahi Hawass. However, the judge did determine that when Dr. Hawass signed the contract with National Geographic, he violated Egyptian law.
  • Why was the contract illegal? Because it was not signed with a government, museum, or scientific institute — a clear violation of Article 10 of Law #117. According to one source, Zahi tried to persuade former U.S. ambassador Margaret Scobey to officially endorse the exhibit, which would have made the contract a legal agreement with a foreign government, but she refused. Her letter to that effect was apparently introduced as evidence during the hearing.
  • The court also ruled the contract was a violation of Egyptian law because then-President Mubarak never approved the deal.
  • Minister of Antiquities Mohammed Ibrahim says he will comply with the court order and will review the legal steps needed to bring Cleopatra home.
  • What about the Tut exhibit, which is now on display in Seattle, Washington — also under the auspices of National Geographic? Another court case begins in early October to determine whether Tut should return home, too.
  • In Egypt, Zahi Hawass, who was a staunch defender of President Mubarak to the bitter end, remains in legal jeopardy. And as one very prominent face of the old regime, Zahi is not a popular man in Egypt. According to one source: “The contracts for the exhibits might become part of charges against Zahi for accepting bribes. Now we know it was Zahi himself who signed the contracts (and not some other Egyptian government official) with National Geographic and AEG/AE for the exhibits, and we know from the 990 forms he was taking payments from National Geographic at the same time. This is a crime under Egyptian law and it may be a violation of the FCPA [Foreign Corrupt Practices Act] in the U.S. as well. … Investigators are working hard to collect more documents to build a watertight case against him. Zahi may be referred to trial within weeks.”

Does this mean that our Society may have violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act? Let’s hope & pray that we have not.

_____

This illegal contract — and the disturbing possibility of bribery and corruption charges — reminds us of two stories we posted last year….

The first story is about Terry Garcia, the Society’s EVP for Mission Programs who worked closely with Zahi Hawass for many years. In May 2011, President Obama nominated Terry to become the next Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce. But when the nomination stalled months later, Terry withdrew himself from consideration without explaining why.

Terry Garcia timeline

(I called Terry’s office last year for comment, but he was “in a meeting” — and never called back.)

Zahi Hawass Terry Garcia

Zahi Hawass and Terry Garcia (via drhawass.com)

The second story is Zahi’s very public embrace of Terry Garcia — and Tim Kelly & John Fahey — just as the Senate nomination process began in May 2011, and just as Zahi’s government career in Egypt was crashing & burning along with the Mubarak regime. “Terry is one of the greatest friends that I have ever had in my life,” Zahi begins his blog post. “When I think about my closest friends, Terry is at the top of the list!

Zahi then describes how Terry was a key player in the funding and organization of the Tutankhamun exhibition. At the end of the post, Zahi says: “I have faith that my two other good friends at National Geographic, John Fahey and Tim Kelly, will continue to support Egypt in the way that Terry has in the past.”  (Read the whole thing here.)

Given that Zahi probably knew that his dealings with National Geographic were legally questionable, his energetic and very public embrace of Terry, Tim, and John sounds less like an endorsement or a heartfelt “thank you,” and more like an attempt to share the glare of a media and legal spotlight which Zahi must have worried he might ultimately occupy alone.

It’s almost as if Zahi is saying: You and me, guys — we’re all in this together! 

For the sake of our Society’s reputation, it would be helpful to hear something — anything at all — from Terry, Tim or John about their dealings with Dr. Hawass, whose status inexplicably changed last year from National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence to National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence (Emeritus).

“The blackness of a chilly winter night….”

Mubarak in cage NYTimes headline

Note the language used by the Egyptian judge:

CAIRO — An Egyptian judge on Saturday sentenced former President Hosni Mubarak to life in prison for the killing of unarmed demonstrators during the first six days of protests that ended his rule. …

Reading his decision, Judge Rafaat waxed poetic about Mr. Mubarak’s government and the uprising that ended it. Mr. Mubarak’s rule was “30 years of intense darkness — black, black, black, the blackness of a chilly winter night,” the judge declared, when officials “committed the gravest sins, tyranny and corruption without accountability or oversight as their consciences died, their feelings became numb and their hearts in their chests turned blind.”

“The peaceful sons of the homeland came out of every deep ravine with all the pain they experienced from injustice, heartbreak, humiliation and oppression,” he added. “Bearing the burden of their suffering on their shoulders, they moved peacefully toward Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt’s capital, demanding only justice, freedom and democracy.”

According the judge’s verdict, Mubarak is an “accessory to murder” in the killing of more than 240 demonstrators in the last six days of January 2011.

Here’s Zahi Hawass delivering a passionate and public defense of then-President Mubarak on February 6, 2011:

Which begs the question: Why is Zahi Hawass a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Emeritus — a title which is an honorific?

Wasn’t Zahi’s lack of honor the reason the Society removed him from our payroll in the first place?

John Fahey National Geographic 150x150

Zahi Hawass is back in the news — and so is our Society

Last June, I posted a news item about accusations that Zahi Hawass — a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence (Emeritus) — had taken revenue from overseas exhibitions of rare Egyptians artifacts and funneled the cash to the family of toppled President Hosni Mubarak.

This week the story has taken a new and troubling turn — especially for our Society:

Zahi Hawass new charges April 2012

Ahram Online, Monday 2 Apr 2012

General Prosecutor Abdel Meguid Mahmoud on Monday referred charges of wasting public money and stealing Egyptian antiquities against Zahi Hawass, former minister of state for antiquities to the Public Fund Prosecution office.

Nour El-Din Abdul-Samad, Director of Archeological Sites, had filed the accusations against Hawass, and requested that the objects in question be returned to the Egyptian Museum.

The Public Funds Prosecution office also received other charges accusing Hawass of wasting public money and exposing Egyptian antiquities to stealing in collaboration with former regime members.

Hawass is accused of sealing a deal with the American Geographical Society [National Geographic Society] to display rare Egyptian antiquities in exhibitions across the United States and Australia, violating the law of protecting antiquities.

Hawass admitted in a television talk show that he had a 17 million dollar deal with the American Geographical Society [National Geographic Society] with regard to a Tutankhamun exhibition to raise donations for Suzanne Mubarak’s association, wife of former president Hosni Mubarak. Suzanne Mubarak’s association was a private association not a state body, and as such Hawass was not legally allowed to use his position as a state minister to raise funds for it.

The charges relate to Hawass agreeing to transfer and display 143 objects from the Egyptian Museum to Washington DC in 2003. The antiquities have yet to be returned to the museum.

These exhibitions violate the antiquities law that prohibits renting Egypt’s heritage.  {emphasis added}

From the Egypt Independent:

… In March 2011, Hawass denied signing an agreement with the American Geographical Society (National Geographic). Rather, he claimed that it was protocol whereby Egypt received a cat scan machine worth US$5 million for Egyptian scientists to conduct research on the mummy of Tutankhamun, in return for National Geographic to film the scientific work.

At the time, National Geographic was to pay an additional US$60,000 to the treasury of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

If these charges are true, and Zahi Hawass really did commit a crime, then two other stories from last year suddenly seem relevant again….

The first story is about Terry Garcia, the Society’s EVP for Mission Programs who worked closely with Zahi for many years. Last May, President Obama nominated Terry to become the next Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce. But when the nomination stalled months later, Terry withdrew himself from consideration without explaining why.
Terry Garcia timeline

(I called Terry’s office last year for comment, but he was “in a meeting” — and never called back.)

Zahi Hawass Terry Garcia

Zahi Hawass and Terry Garcia (via drhawass.com)

The second story is Zahi’s very public embrace of Terry Garcia — and Tim Kelly & John Fahey — just as the Senate nomination process began last May, and just as Zahi’s government career in Egypt was crashing & burning along with the Mubarak regime. “Terry is one of the greatest friends that I have ever had in my life,” Zahi begins his blog post. “When I think about my closest friends, Terry is at the top of the list!

Zahi then describes how Terry was a key player in the funding and organization of the Tutankhamun exhibition. At the end of the post, Zahi says: “I have faith that my two other good friends at National Geographic, John Fahey and Tim Kelly, will continue to support Egypt in the way that Terry has in the past.”  (Read the whole thing here.)

Given the recent criminal allegations by Egypt’s General Prosecutor, Zahi’s energetic and very public embrace of Terry, Tim, and John begins to sound less like an endorsement or a heartfelt “thank you,” and more like an attempt to share the glare of a media and legal spotlight which Zahi must have worried he might ultimately occupy alone.

It’s almost as if Zahi is saying: You and me, guys — we’re all in this together! 

For the sake of our Society’s reputation, it would be helpful to hear something — anything at all — from Terry, Tim or John about their dealings with Dr. Hawass, whose status inexplicably changed last year from National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence to National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence (Emeritus).

The Unraveling of Zahi Hawass

Why is Zahi Hawass, once a celebrated National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, now an Explorer-in-Residence Emeritus?

He bet on the wrong horse. And so did the National Geographic Society.

Mubarak on trial

August 3, 2011

CAIRO — An ailing Hosni Mubarak, who served longer than any ruler of modern Egypt until he was overthrown in a revolution in February, was rolled into a courtroom in a hospital bed on Wednesday and charged with corruption and complicity in the killing of protesters. The trial was a seminal moment for Egypt and an Arab world roiled by revolt.

Even the most ardent in calling for his prosecution doubted until hours before the trial began that Mr. Mubarak, 83, would appear, a reflection of the suspicion and unease that reigns here. As a helicopter ferried him to the courtroom, housed in a police academy that once bore his name, cheers went up from a crowd gathered outside.

“The criminal is coming!” shouted Maged Wahba, a 40-year-old lawyer.

The sheer symbolism of the day made it one of the most visceral episodes in modern Arab history. In a region whose destiny was so long determined by rulers who deemed their people unfit to rule, one of those rulers was being tried by his public. …

As a headline in a popular Egyptian newspaper read: “The Day of Judgment.”

Read the whole thing here.

February 6, 2011:

It’s no secret that we believe National Geographic should have cut ties with Zahi a long time ago. His public embrace of what he calls an Arabic “idiom” is a disgrace and an embarrassment to our Society — and to any society that celebrates freedom, human rights, and democracy.

Egypt NGS products horiz

_____

When the leaders of a Society know who they are — and who they are not — it shows.

NGM cover flag1943

July 1943

Zahi Hawass, National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Emeritus, is still making news in Egypt

Mubaraks revenue Hawass

Wednesday, July 27, 2011 – 14:59

Since 2002, revenue from overseas exhibitions of rare artifacts has gone to the family of toppled President Hosni Mubarak, an Egyptian antiquities official alleged Tuesday.

Abdel Rahman al-Aidy, head of the Central Department for the Artifacts of Central Egypt, said during a press conference on Tuesday that the attorney general had yet to take action on 21 reports Aidy filed calling for an investigation into well-known former Antiquities Minister Zahi Hawass and his aides.

He said he had prepared a list of the “five chief corrupt figures at the Supreme Council of Antiquities,” and added that he will file a report against them this week.

Meanwhile, Hawass has denied the accusation, saying a King Tut exhibition in the US generated US$70 million for Egypt, funds he said were used to finance the construction of the Grand Egyptian Museum. ...

Read the whole thing here.

Zahi Hawass to “resign temporarily” as National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence

July 13 2011 NY Times front page Zahi HawassAccording to a front-page story in the national edition of today’s New York Times, Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s embattled Minister of Antiquities, “has decided to resign temporarily as a National Geographic explorer [Explorer-in-Residence] so that he can focus on protecting antiquities.”

 

Revolution Dims Star Power of Egypt’s Antiquities Chief

By Kate Taylor

Until recently Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s antiquities minister, was a global symbol of Egyptian national pride. A famous archaeologist in an Indiana Jones hat, he was virtually unassailable in the old Egypt, protected by his success in boosting tourism, his efforts to reclaim lost artifacts and his closeness to the country’s first lady, Suzanne Mubarak.

But the revolution changed all that.

Now demonstrators in Cairo are calling for his resignation as the interim government faces disaffected crowds in Tahrir Square.

Mubarek Hawass

Egypt's former President Hosni Mubarak & Dr. Zahi Hawass

Their primary complaint is his association with the Mubaraks, whom he defended in the early days of the revolution. But the upheaval has also drawn attention to the ways he has increased his profile over the years, often with the help of organizations and companies with which he has done business as a government official.

He receives, for example, an honorarium each year of as much as $200,000 from National Geographic to be an explorer-in-residence even as he controls access to the ancient sites it often features in its reports.

National Geographic first brought Mr. Hawass on as an explorer-in-residence, one of 16 it has around the world, in 2001 when he was director of the Giza pyramids. He has appeared in numerous National Geographic films about ancient Egypt, and the organization publishes some of his books and arranges his speaking engagements, for which he asks $15,000.

It is not clear how the National Geographic payments compare in size to Mr. Hawass’s government salary, which he would not disclose. National Geographic says it pays Mr. Hawass to advise it on major discoveries and help shape its policies on antiquities issues. It says it has never received preferential access to archaeological sites or discoveries.

Mr. Hawass said his impartiality was evident when the Discovery Channel won out over National Geographic in a bid to make films about DNA research on royal mummies.

“All proposals about films go before a committee,” he said in an e-mail, “and decisions are made to maximize both the scientific results and the profit for Egypt.”

But Mr. Hawass also said this week that he has decided to resign temporarily as a National Geographic explorer so that he can focus on protecting antiquities.

Read the whole thing here.

We welcome Zahi’s resignation for many reasons. Then again, his saying that “he has decided to resign temporarily” could mean almost anything.

For instance:

• He’s made the decision, but hasn’t actually resigned yet. And tomorrow is a new day. He could always change his mind.

• He resigns temporarily. Headlines! He returns to his ministerial position next Monday because… because the antiquities have been protected. Headlines! Egypt’s Prime Minister Essam Sharaf announces his cabinet overhaul later this week — and Zahi remains standing. Or he gets tapped for an even more powerful position. Headline: Zahi Hawass: Survivor. And so on.

• His “temporary” departure is really permanent, and he knows it. But by saying “temporary,” he makes it sound as though duty calls, and that he needs to devote more of his time and energy to protect Egypt’s antiquities, legacy, and honor.  Which makes us wonder: Why in the world would Zahi walk away from a lucrative deal with NGS (the Times says as much as $200,000 per year) when his arrangement with our Society, best we can tell, requires very little of Zahi’s time or attention?  

JohnFahey balloon v31

Dear John,
Why is Zahi Hawass resigning? 

Will the real Zahi Hawass please stand up?

First, Zahi Hawass — a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residencedefended Hosni Mubarak on international TV.

Then, he pivots, and claims he embraces the Egyptian revolution and democracy.

But is Zahi up to his old tricks again? Is he saying one thing to an English-speaking audience, and something else to the Arabic one? Shahira Amin, a former anchor on Egyptian state TV who resigned in protest during the uprising, provides this behind-the-scenes peek at one of National Geographic’s marquee personalities:

Shahira Amin FB Zahi Hawass

“These sons of bitches have destroyed Egypt.”

_____

Dear John,
Any thoughts?

JohnFahey balloon v31

Zahi Hawass & The Big Pivot

Remember in February, during the democracy uprising in Egypt, when Zahi Hawass (a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence) doubled down on Egypt’s then-President Hosni Mubarak? Hawass argued passionately and very publicly that Mubarak needed to remain in power for the good of the Egyptian people.

So much for that angle.

Today, meet New & Improved Zahi, who is attempting what we’re calling The Big Pivot — a change in direction so radical, and made so quickly, that it’s a miracle he isn’t wearing a neck brace to treat whiplash.

Perhaps the best part of his extreme makeover (see below) is the challenge that New Zahi effectively poses to the National Geographic Society.

Zahi Hawass Traveling Exhibition news

By Steven Viney
Monday, April 25, 2011  - 14:54

News about Zahi Hawass — a clothing line, an arrest, cash rewards for the safe return of antiquities — changes daily. But before he was pinned for a shady real estate deal, Egypt’s minister of antiquities had been focusing on celebrating the revolution that has stirred up so much trouble for him by curating a 25 January exhibition.

The exhibition will feature the work of several Egyptian contemporary artists in various media in order to reflect their views on the recent revolution. The art will be accompanied by a collection of photographs showing Tahrir Square and various revolution demonstrations, and will travel the globe as Hawass’ Tutankhamen and the Pharaohs exhibition did.

“For 5,000 years Egypt was ruled, until 25 January, by a pharaoh,” Hawass told Al-Masry Al-Youm. “It is a huge change in our history, and this exhibit will present the world with the new Egypt.” …

Though still in its embryonic stages, the exhibition is intended to start in Cairo, and travel through at least 10 European countries.

“I have already received many letters from countries — including Italy, Belgium and Spain — who are very interested to host this exhibition,” said Hawass. “It confirms my belief that the face of Egypt is changing, and people are interested to see it.”

The Tutankhamen and the Pharaohs exhibition stands in stark contrast to the subject material of the 25 January exhibition — a fact that Hawass is very excited about.

“Egypt has finally broken free from the prejudice that modern Egypt is the same as ancient Egypt. When people think of Egypt now, they will no longer only be thinking about camels and pyramids. Instead they will think about democracy, freedom and how the Egyptian people really feel – so for me it was obvious that the next exhibition should show it to them.” …

This revolution is now just as important to Egyptian history as Tutankhamen. Tahrir square is now extremely iconic of modern times in Egyptian history. To not include it would be a very poor recording of history on my part.”

Again: The democracy uprising is “as important to Egyptian history as Tutankhamen.” This from King Tut’s PR guy.

What do you make of that, John Fahey? Quite a statement, don’t you think?

Why doesn’t National Geographic — long gripped by Pharoah Phever — follow Zahi’s lead, and unleash its ample resources to cover “democracy, freedom and how the Egyptian people really feel”?

Imagine: We launch a huge Society-wide Democracy & Freedom tentpole that incorporates Zahi’s new exhibition, which we could bring to National Geographic headquarters in Washington, DC. Publish a special issue of National Geographic magazine about democracy uprisings across the Middle East and North Africa. Produce a major, hi-def, multi-part documentary series — sort of like Great Migrations, but interesting this time. You know, so people will actually watch the show and buy the companion coffee table book.

To make it easy for you, John, we’ve already cut the trailer.

This could be huge, John. This could be the moment that National Geographic turns the corner. This could be your Big Pivot to establish a NGS legacy that will make you, your children, and your grandchildren proud.

Otherwise, you may well be remembered as the guy who put National Geographic’s good name on air freshener and bedroom furniture… who used our Society to embolden thugs and dictators… and who sold our Society’s brand equity to Rupert Murdoch, who continues to trash our reputation by producing shows that make us all cringe.

You’re a better man than that.

Dear John,
Is it time for your Big Pivot?

JohnFahey balloon v31

Zahi Hawass, Keeper of Ancient Eye Candy, Is Back

NYT headline Zahi returns with logo

Zahi Hawass, who resigned as Egypt’s minister of antiquities less than a month ago under criticism for his close ties to former President Hosni Mubarak, was reappointed to the post on Wednesday, Agence France-Presse reported, citing an Egyptian news report; Mr. Hawass, reached by phone, confirmed his reappointment.

Zahi Hawass at microphones

Zahi Hawass in February 2011 (via the Los Angeles Times)

Mr. Hawass, a powerful figure in the world of Egyptology, was promoted to a cabinet position in the early days of the uprising, and drew the animosity of the revolutionaries by saying at the time that Mr. Mubarak should be allowed to hold power for another six months. He also said that Egypt’s museums and archeological sites were largely secure and that cases of looting were very limited. In the weeks that followed, that turned out not to be the case: several dozen objects were stolen from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo during a break-in on Jan. 28 — many have been recovered, though 37 are still missing — and hundreds more were taken from tombs and warehouses elsewhere in Egypt.

… Mr. Hawass, who has never been accused of being humble, said on Wednesday that he did not ask to come back, but that there was no one else who could do the job. “I cannot live without antiquities, and antiquities cannot live without me,” he said.

Question is: Can National Geographic live without Zahi Hawass?

Dear John,

Why do we still have Zahi Hawass on our payroll as an Explorer-in-Residence when he says, then defends, nasty stuff like this:

“It seems that the idea of killing children, old people, and women and ignoring taboos runs in the blood of the Palestinian Jews.”

(If that doesn’t make your stomach churn, perhaps this will. Or this.)

Are you so transfixed by the gold, the mummies, the pyramids — the whole ancient Egyptian deification of Power — that you’ll continue to give Zahi a free pass?

If so, then during the coming Passover and Easter season, you might ask yourself: Is the Exodus-Passion-Resurrection story only about Way Back When? Or is it also a cautionary tale about the abuse of earthly power in the Here & Now?

yul brynner

Yul Brynner as Ramesses II in "The Ten Commandments"

Mubarak as Pharaoh protest poster

Anti-Mubarak protest in Cairo (via AP)

Any thoughts, John?

JohnFahey balloon v31

NO NEW POSTS will be published here after February 6, 2014. THIS IS WHY.